What Are Closing Costs?
What Are Closing Costs?
What fees can you expect at closing?
Closing costs vary widely based on where you live, the property you buy, and the type of loan you choose. Here is a list of fees that may be included in closing. The list is inclusive of fees you may see, but it’s not likely that your loan will include all of the fees listed here.
- Application Fee: This fee covers the cost for the lender to process your application. Before submitting an application, ask your lender what this fee covers. It can often include things like a credit check for your credit score or appraisal as well. Not all lenders charge an application fee, and it can often be negotiated.
- Appraisal: This is paid to the appraisal company to confirm the fair market value of the home.
- Attorney Fee: This pays for an attorney to review the closing documents on behalf of the buyer or the lender. This is not required in all states.
- Closing Fee or Escrow Fee: This is paid to the title company, escrow company or attorney for conducting the closing. The title company or escrow oversees the closing as an independent party in your home purchase. Some states require a real estate attorney be present at every closing.
- Courier Fee: This covers the cost of transporting documents to complete the loan transaction as quickly as possible.
- Credit Report: A Tri-merge credit report is pulled to get your credit history and score. Your credit score plays a big role in determining the interest rate you’ll get on your loan.
- Escrow Deposit for Property Taxes & Mortgage Insurance: Often you are asked to put down two months of property tax and mortgage insurance payments at closing.
- FHA Up-Front Mortgage Insurance Premium (UPMIP): If you have an FHA loan, you’ll be required to pay the UPMIP of 1.75% of the base loan amount. You are also able to roll this into the cost of the loan if you prefer.
- Flood Determinationor Life of Loan Coverage: This is paid to a third party to determine if the property is located in a flood zone. If the property is found to be located within a flood zone, you will need to buy flood insurance. The insurance, of course, is paid separately.
- Home Inspection: You will likely get your own home inspection to verify the condition of a property and to check for home repairs that may be needed before closing.
- Home Owners Association Transfer Fees: The Seller will pay for this transfer which will show that the dues are paid current, what the dues are, a copy of the association financial statements, minutes and notices. The buyer should review these documents to determine if the Association has enough reserves in place to avert future special assessments, check to see if there are special assessments, legal action, or any other items that might be of concern. Also included will be Association by-laws, rules and regulations and CC & Rs.
- Homeowners’ Insurance: This covers possible damages to your home. Your first year’s insurance is often paid at closing.
- Lender’s Policy Title Insurance: This is insurance to assure the lender that you own the home and the lender’s mortgage is a valid lien, and it protects the lender if there is a problem with the title. Similar to the title search, but always a separate line item.
- Lead-Based Paint Inspection: Covers the cost of evaluating lead-based paint risk.
- Loan Discount Points: “Points” are prepaid interest. One point is one percent of your loan amount. This is a lump sum payment that lowers your monthly payment for the life of your loan.
- Owner’s Policy Title Insurance: This is an insurance policy that protects you in the event someone challenges your ownership of the home. It is usually optional.
- Origination Fee: This covers the lender’s administrative costs. It’s usually about 1 percent of the total loan but you can sometimes find mortgages with no origination fee.
- Pest Inspection: This fee covers the cost to inspect for termites or dry rot, which is required in some states and required for government loans. Repairs can get expensive if evidence of termites, dry rot or other wood damage is found.
- Prepaid Interest:Most lenders will ask you to prepay any interest that will accrue between closing and the date of your first mortgage payment.
- Private Mortgage Insurance (PMI): If you’re making a down payment that’s less than 20% of the home’s purchase price, chances are you’ll be required to pay PMI. If so, you may need to pay the first month’s PMI payment at closing.
- Property Tax: Typically, lenders will want any taxes due within 60 days of purchase by the loan servicer to be paid at closing.
- Recording Fees: A fee charged by your local recording office, usually city or county, for the recording of public land records.
- Survey Fee: This fee goes to a survey company to verify all property lines and things like shared fences on the property. This is not required in all states.
- Title Company Title Search or Exam Fee: This fee is paid to the title company for doing a thorough search of the property’s records. The title company researches the deed to your new home, ensuring that no one else has a claim to the property.
- Transfer Taxes: This is the tax paid when the title passes from seller to buyer.
- Underwriting Fee: This also goes to your lender, covering the cost of researching whether or not to approve you for the loan.
- VA Funding Fee: If you have a VA loan, you may be required to pay a VA funding fee at closing (or you can roll this fee into the cost of the loan if you prefer). This is a percentage of the loan amount that the VA assesses to fund the VA home loan program, however some borrowers are exempt from this fee. The percentage depends on your type of service and the amount of your down payment.
Explore our real estate dictionary for a more comprehensive list of terms.
How much are closing costs and who pays?
In closing, both buyers and sellers have costs. Both buyers and sellers pay closing costs, but the costs vary and include a long list of fees, prepayments, and services that make the transaction happen.
As a buyer, you can expect to pay about 2-5 percent of the purchase price in closing costs, most of which goes to lender-related fees.
Closing costs for sellers can reach 8-10 percent of the sale price of the home. It’s higher than the buyer’s closing costs because the seller typically pays both listing and buyer’s agent’s commission, around 6 percent of the sale. Fees and taxes for the seller are 2-4 percent of the sale. However, seller closing costs are deducted from the profits made on the sale of the home on closing, so rarely will you need to bring cash to closing.
Sellers pay the commission
Sellers tend to pay more at closing, as they are responsible for paying the real estate commission. Sellers can expect to pay between about 3 to 6 percent of the sale price in closing costs. The commission is based on a percentage of the total sale price, so it tends to be the biggest fee paid at closing. In addition to the real estate commission, sellers may have to pay the balance of their property taxes, if they haven’t done so already, as well as any prorated homeowners association dues.
Buyers pay closing fees mainly associated with the loans
Typically, home buyers will pay between about 2 to 5 percent of the purchase price of their home in closing fees.
Most buyers are getting loans to make the purchase, and many of the charges stem from the loan. Typically, buyers getting a loan will see some of the following costs at closing:
- Appraisal fee
- Origination fee
- Prepaid interest
- Prepaid insurance
- Flood certification fee
- Tax servicing fee
- Credit report fee
- Bank processing fee
- Recording fee
- Notary fee
- Title insurance
Your lender will give you a Loan Estimate for your loan, which will include what the closing costs on your home will be, within three business days of receiving your completed loan application. But these are just an estimate, and many of the fees listed can change. If they do change, you may receive a revised Loan Estimate so there are no surprises along the way.
Often, many of the fees that make up closing costs are negotiable, and some are completely unnecessary, especially things such as high administrative, mailing or courier costs charged by your lender. Remember that you can shop around and you may be able to find other lenders who are willing to offer you a loan with lower fees at closing.
At least three business days before your closing, the lender should give you Closing Disclosure statement, which outlines closing fees. Compare this to your Loan Estimate and ask the lender to explain what each line item on your closing costs is and why it is needed. There are limitations on the amount a number of fees can increase from the Loan Estimate to the Closing Disclosure so there really shouldn’t be any surprises on closing day. But if there are, you can still walk away at closing.
How can home buyers avoid closing costs?
You can also avoid upfront fees on your loan by getting a no-closing cost mortgage, in which you don’t pay any of the closing costs when you close on the mortgage.
Typically, when a lender offers a deal like this, it does end up costing you in the long run: The lender may charge you a higher interest rate on the loan for not paying closing costs, or the lender may wrap the closing fees into the total mortgage owed, in which case you end up paying interest on the closing costs.
Finally, home buyers can negotiate with the seller over who pays these fees. Sometimes the seller will agree to assume the buyer’s closing fees.